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Was versteht man unter Open Access in der Wissenschaft? Einige Definionen

[UNESCO: Open Access. Chancen und Herausforderungen. - ein Handbuch - (kann heruntergeladen und selbst gepostet werden).]
  1. Budapest Open Access Initiative BOAI
    "Open access meint, dass diese Literatur kostenfrei und öffentlich im Internet zugänglich sein sollte, so dass Interessierte die Volltexte lesen, herunterladen, kopieren, verteilen, drucken, in ihnen suchen, auf sie verweisen und sie auch sonst auf jede denkbare legale Weise benutzen können, ohne finanzielle, gesetzliche oder technische Barrieren jenseits von denen, die mit dem Internet-Zugang selbst verbunden sind. In allen Fragen des Wiederabdrucks und der Verteilung und in allen Fragen des Copyrights überhaupt sollte die einzige Einschränkung darin bestehen, den jeweiligen Autorinnen und Autoren Kontrolle über ihre Arbeit zu belassen und deren Recht zu sichern, dass ihre Arbeit angemessen anerkannt und zitiert wird."
  2. DFG
    "Open Access bedeutet den für Nutzer entgeltfreien Zugriff auf und die Möglichkeit umfassender Verwertung von qualitätsgeprüften wissenschaftlichen Publikationen im Internet."
  3. Joseph Esposito
    "With the advent of the Internet and online publishing, the notion has arisen that access to the world's research publications could be made available to one and all for free, presumably by shifting the costs to other places in the value chain and disintermediating publishers, a circumstance called Open Access (OA) publishing."
    20 July 2004, Joseph J. Esposito (former executive at Simon and Schuster and at Random House, former President of Merriam-Webster and former CEO of Encyclopaedia Britannica), espositoj(at)att.net, First Monday, opening sentence of abstract for The devil you don't know: The unexpected future of Open Access publishing
  4. GAP - German Academic Publishers (DFG-Projekt)
    "Open Access: Ziel von GAP ist der freie Zugriff auf qualitätsgeprüfte wissenschaftliche Information."
    GAP-Projektwebseite: ''GAPsearch weist Publikationen nach, die ... per Klick Open Access zum Lesen, zum Ausdrucken und zum Download verfügbar sind.''
  5. Stevan Harnad
    (worum es bei der Open Access Initiative geht)
    "The Open Access Initiative is about providing toll-free, online, full-text access to the 2.5 million articles that appear annually in the world's 24,000 peer-reviewed journals in order to make them accessible to all their would-be users worldwide -- irrespective of whether their institutions can afford to subscribe to the journal in which each article appears -- and thereby maximising the research impact of each article, its author, its author's institution, and its author's research funder."
    Stevan Harnad, 20 October 2004, Amsci-Forum Archive and American-Scientist-Open-Access-Forum AMSCI
  6. Institute for Science Networking Oldenburg ISN
    "Open Access heisst, das Dokument ist im Volltext auf dem Netz frei verfügbar (mit dem Einverständnis des Autors). Dazu gibt es die folgenden Möglichkeiten:
    • - Individuelles Selbst-Archivieren: Der Autor legt das Dokument auf seinen lokalen Server (z.B. seiner Arbeitsgruppe im Institut).
    • - Institutionelles Selbst-Archivieren: Institut / Fachbereich / Uni-Bibliothek legen das Dokument auf einen ihrer Server (Projekte sind z.B. GAP German Academic Publishers für Dokumente aus der lokalen Universitiät, eDoc der MPG für Dokumente aus den Max Planck Instituten).
    • - Zentrales Selbst-Archivieren: Das Dokument wird an ein zentrales OA-Archiv gesandt, das für Dokumente aus aller Welt und aller Fächer offen ist (z.B.: e-arXiv der Cornell University oder HAL des CCSD [Centre pour la Communication Scientifique Directe] des CNRS [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique].
    • - Open Access Journals (siehe Regensburger Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek, derzeit ca. 10 % aller Zeitschriften) [eLib]".

    ISN, Institute for Science Networking Oldenburg, Germany, 20. Juli 2004: Elf Argumente für Open Access, Thomas Severiens, severiens(at)isn-oldenburg.de, Eberhard R. Hilf, hilf(at)isn-oldenburg.de.
  7. Claudia Koltzenburg
    "... I suggest we look at a scale by which access to a document containing research findings can claim to be an Open Access information object: 1. contentwise, 2. technically, 3. legally, 4. financially, 5. who knows about it? ... 1. contentwise
    • * intelligibility/usability: does the content of the object make sense? make sense to whom and for what purpose?
    • * intelligibility/usability: what language(s) are the data in? do my readers know one of these languages?
    • * quality control: who is the collective of thinkers that has deemed this object to be relevant for publication? how did this collective come together?
    • * quality control: which power structures governed the process of choice in this case? why is this object more relevant than the one not published?
    • * etc.
    2. technically
    • * hardware equipment ready to use by author, facilitator/distributor, reader?
    • * connection line to the internet available by author, facilitator/distributor, reader?
    • * software ready to use by author, facilitator/distributor, reader?
    • * ? usability: which standards are claimed to be standards? by whom? for whom?
    • * etc.
    3. legally
    • * can readers see and understand which licence(s) govern this specific chunk of data, what they may and may not do with the data?
    • * licence applicable for which legal system?
    • * how many authors know about the possibilities e.g. creative commons licences offer?
    • * etc.
    4. financially
    • * who pays?
    • * to whom?
    • * for what?
    • * how often or how long?
    • * why?
    • * mandatory payment?
    • * etc.
    5. who knows about it?
    • * as always: who is in thinks..."

    24 September 2004, 4 conditions of open access, Claudia Koltzenburg, in: 20 September-4 October 2004: UNDP gpgNet Forum on Open Access to Scholarly Publications: A Model for Enhanced Knowledge Management? ; Co-hosted with the Open Society Institute (OSI)
  8. MPG (Max-Planck-Gesellschaft)/ ZIM (Heinz-Nixdorf-Zentrum für Informationsmanagement in der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft)
    Berliner Erklärung

    "Definition of an Open Access Contribution Establishing open access as a worthwhile procedure ideally requires the active commitment of each and every individual producer of scientific knowledge and holder of cultural heritage. Open access contributions include original scientific research results, raw data and metadata, source materials, digital representations of pictorial and graphical materials and scholarly multimedia material.
    Open access contributions must satisfy two conditions: The author(s) and right holder(s) of such contributions grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship (community standards, will continue to provide the mechanism for enforcement of proper attribution and responsible use of the published work, as they do now), as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use. A complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in an appropriate standard electronic format is deposited (and thus published) in at least one online repository using suitable technical standards (such as the Open Archive definitions) that is supported and maintained by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, inter operability, and long-term archiving. "
    Berliner Erklärung über offenen Zugang zu wissenschaftlichem Wissen, Oktober 2003, verbindliche englischsprachige Fassung
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Korrekturen und Hinweise bitte an hilf at isn-oldenburg.de

Last update:   2009.03.04 (Wednesday) 21:47:12 CET